Procuring inequality.

Understanding the gender pay gap in government contracting.

Authors: Fiona Hunt, Dora Homoki, Alex Yeung
Date: March 2021

Introduction.

This is our latest research into the gender pay gap in public contracting for the UK. Our research is designed to identify the existing pay gap in the dynamic between public sector buyers and suppliers.

What is the pay gap?

The pay ‘gap’ is calculated as the difference between average hourly earnings (excluding overtime) of men and women as a proportion of men’s average hourly earnings (excluding overtime).

The scope of our analysis

Our research is currently limited to the £292bn ($404bn) spent by the UK public sector every year. However, this work should stand as an exemplar of what can be achieved when reliable open data on procurement and companies is published by governments. We would encourage any governments that would like to achieve more with their procurement data to get in touch.

What is the overall picture in the UK?

As part of our analysis, we found that the gender pay gap across the UK was 11.47%. This means that women are paid 88p for every £1 that men are paid. This 11.47% is the average of the median hourly pay report of every organisation’s most recent report.

Where we come in

Spend Network is pleased to release our survey of the gender pay gap data in public procurement. We linked gender pay gap reports from over 2,600 organisations with our database of contract and spend data. We looked at almost 31,000 contracts won by these organisations during the 2017-2020 period. This gave us insight into whether public money is going to organisations, what gender pay bias existed in those organisations and the extent of this phenomenon across all public contracting.

Credit

This report would not have been possible without the amazing work of our partners at Open Contracting Partnership and Open Ownership. Their work in opening up procurement and company data in the UK and around the world as well as maintaining open data standards has been a critical enabler for this work.

Percent of contract revenues by pay gap bias.

Value of contracts going to companies according to gender pay gap bias, measured in %.


Percent of contract revenues by pay gap bias.

Value of contracts going to companies according to gender pay gap bias, measured in %.


wdt_id Pay Gap Bias in favour of men Bias in favour of women
1 Relative pay gap bias 94.43% 5.57%

Percent of contract revenues by pay gap bias.

Value of contracts going to companies according to gender pay gap bias, measured in %.


Sources:

Spend Network database of contracts, all contracts are aggregated from official sources such as Contracts Finder and other publishing portals.

The Companies House register of UK companies: https://find-and-update.company-information.service.gov.uk/

The UK Government’s open data on gender pay: https://gender-pay-gap.service.gov.uk/

Scope:

All published contracts between 2017 and 2020 and latest gender pay gap reporting for companies winning contracts.

Description:

Data on contract awardees was linked to Companies House data using a combination of automated and manual matching. Using identifiers from Companies House data we were able to link contracts to gender pay reporting, and examine all the companies that won tenders and had a gender pay gap bias of >1% towards men. The sum value of these contracts were used to establish a percentage figure.

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Headline findings.

Our research clearly shows that there is a significant bias towards men both in the delivery of public services and that this bias increases once public services are outsourced to the private sector.

92.57% of the money government spent with suppliers between 2017 and 2020 went to companies with a pay bias in favour of men. Organisations with a ‘low’ bias across genders, that is to say between 1% and 10%, make up only 34.15% of contracting.

Gender bias in pay is overwhelmingly skewed towards men. 67.65% of the contract value goes to firms that pay men 10% more than women. Whilst over 45% of contracts by value go to organisations with a pay bias greater than 20%. Meanwhile suppliers with a female bias of 10% or more accounts for less than 1% (0.96%) of the value of contracts being let.

When compared with the national average for all reporting organisations (11.47%) we found that across all suppliers to the public sector there is a larger pay bias towards men (12.61%) than average. By contrast, public sector organisations do considerably better with an average median pay gap of 9.85%.

Average gender pay gap for key groups.

The average gender pay gap bias of different types of organisation, measured in percent (%). 


Average gender pay gap for key groups.

The average gender pay gap bias of different types of organisation, measured in percent (%). 


id Type Pay gap (%)
1 National average 11.47
2 Strategic suppliers 17.72
3 All public sector suppliers 12.61
4 Major government departments 9.85

Average gender pay gap for key groups.

The average gender pay gap bias of different types of organisation, measured in percent (%). 


Sources:

Spend Network database of contracts, all contracts are aggregated from official sources such as Contracts Finder and other publishing portals.
The Companies House register of UK companies: https://find-and-update.company-information.service.gov.uk/

The UK Government’s open data on gender pay: https://gender-pay-gap.service.gov.uk/

Scope:

All published contracts between 2017 and 2020 and latest gender pay gap reporting for companies winning contracts.

Description:

Data on contract awardees was linked to Companies House data using a combination of automated and manual matching. Using identifiers from Companies House data we were able to link contracts to gender pay reporting, and examine all the companies that won tenders. We also linked UK public bodies to our database of public entities which are hierarchically linked (e.g. Highways Agency is listed as subordinate to Department for Transport). We took the latest results for all the organisations that reported gender pay, segmented by their status (e.g. central government, strategic supplier, public sector supplier) and calculated the average median pay bias.

To calculate pay gap averages we have taken reporting from different points in time, including submissions by companies from 2021, 2020 and in some cases 2019. This explains why our figure for the national average differs from the ONS’ reported figures of 15.5% for April 2020. Relaxing the mandate to publish pay gaps due to the Covid-19 pandemic has undoubtedly impacted the completeness of data and we feel that this is the most appropriate way to measure the national average in the context of this research.

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Buy side: Departmental performance.

In order to establish a consistent pay gap for each ministerial department, we took the latest pay gap reports for each available ministerial department and the reports published by non-departmental bodies governed by that department. So for instance, the figure for DCMS takes reporting from the department itself and for Sport England and other non-departmental bodies before calculating an average pay gap for the whole department.

Of the 24 ministerial departments, nineteen report their gender pay gap data, smaller organisations such as Number 10 Downing Street and The Northern Ireland Office do not meet the threshold of more than 250 employees and so don’t report.

Our analysis shows a significant bias in favour of men (9.85%), but that this bias is better than the national average for all organisations reporting a pay gap (11.47%). However, eight of the nineteen departments that report are performing above this national average, and the Department for Transport maintains a gender pay gap (20%) that is more than double the average for the departments as a whole.

Only three departments have a pay gap bias of less than 5% in favour of men and only Her Majesty’s Treasury have a gender pay bias in favour of women.

Clearly performing better than the average is to be applauded, however there remains a question about whether the government is willing to examine the performance of its suppliers and to start to demand better performance from them.

Comparing the UK’s Ministerial Departments

Comparing the UK’s ministerial departments and their departmental bodies compare on the gender pay gap, measured in %.


Comparing the UK’s Ministerial Departments

Comparing the UK’s ministerial departments and their departmental bodies compare on the gender pay gap, measured in %.


Central Government Average gender pay gap (%)
Attorney General's Office 1.07
Cabinet Office 11.58
DCMS 4.15
DfE 8.13
DEFRA 9.73
DExEU 12.33
DFID 7.48
DIT 10.23
DfT 20.3
DWP 16.82
DHSC 11.88
BEIS 12.59
FCO 11.07
HM:Treasury -3.86
Home Office 9.64
Ministry of Defence 9.57
MHCLG 12.96
MoJ 9.2
UK Export Finance 12

Comparing the UK’s Ministerial Departments

Comparing the UK’s ministerial departments and their departmental bodies compare on the gender pay gap, measured in %.


Sources:

The UK Government’s open data on gender pay: https://gender-pay-gap.service.gov.uk/

The UK Government’s list of organisations: https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations

Scope:

Most recent gender pay gap reporting for ministerial departments and their sub-entities.

Description:

We gathered the most recent reporting for each of the ministerial departments, where they meet the threshold for publishing, along with the reporting for all of the department’s sub-entities, including non-ministerial departments, advisory non-departmental public bodies, executive agencies, executive non-departmental public bodies and other agencies. We then took a median gender pay gap for the group of reporting organisations.

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Sell side: strategic suppliers.

This disparity is starker still when looking at strategic suppliers. Strategic suppliers are those organisations that the government’s Crown Commercial Service function has identified as critical to the delivery of public services and subsequently that their financial stability and their performance could impact the delivery of public services. As a result these suppliers are tasked with additional reporting and with a ‘Crown Representative’ who liaises with the company to ensure that contracts are delivered effectively.

We took the most recent pay gap reporting for companies that are part of these groups that have won contracts between 2017 and 2020 and then calculated the average pay gap for each supplier.

We found across all of the strategic suppliers, there was an average median pay gap of 17.72% demonstrating that these critical suppliers have a greater gender pay gap than the average for the wider economy (6.2% more) and a greater average than the rest of the companies trading with the public sector (5.22% more).

As of writing, both Sopra Steria and PWC have maintained an average pay disparity of more than 30% in favour of men. Thirteen strategic suppliers have a median pay bias towards men of more than 20% and across all strategic suppliers, the average median pay bias towards men is 17.72%. The bulk of strategic suppliers’ pay gap is around the 10-20% mark. At the extreme end, six strategic suppliers have a pay gap bias of over 25%.

What is most striking is the clear differential between similar suppliers, for instance PWC reports a gender pay gap which is more than double that of Deloitte. Vodafone reports a gender pay gap which is double that of BT. Undoubtedly some of the pay gaps are linked to the type of work being done and the company structures employed by different suppliers, but it is clear that at some level this disparity is down to the individual hiring and compensation decisions within the companies.

Comparing the UK’s strategic suppliers.

How the UK’s strategic suppliers compare on gender pay gap, measured in %. 


Comparing the UK’s strategic suppliers.

How the UK’s strategic suppliers compare on gender pay gap, measured in %.


Strategic supplier Average gender pay gap
ACCENTURE 9.80%
ATKINS 18.00%
ATOS 29.70%
AWS 20.10%
BABCOCK 16.83%
BALFOUR 23.00%
BT 8.35%
CAPGEMINI 18.00%
CAPITA 23.33%
CGI 12.40%
COMPUTACENTER 18.60%
DELOITTE 14.70%
DXC 26.00%
ENGIE 27.38%
FUJITSU 11.60%
G4S 5.86%
IBM 14.70%
INTERSERVE 16.62%
ISS 6.50%
JACOBS 27.45%
KBR 29.00%
KIER 17.65%
LEIDOS 18.50%
MICROSOFT 10.20%
MITIE 3.01%
MOTOROLA 12.30%
MOTT 19.45%
ORACLE 17.20%
PWC 31.70%
SERCO 10.40%
SODEXO 23.80%
SOPRA STERIA 39.40%
VIRGIN 7.40%
VODAFONE 19.20%
AMEY 17.58%
ERNST & YOUNG 17.95%
KPMG 20.87%
LAING O'ROURKE 8.90%

Comparing the UK’s strategic suppliers.

How the UK’s strategic suppliers compare on gender pay gap, measured in %. 


Sources:

Spend Network database of contracts, all contracts are aggregated from official sources such as Contracts Finder and other publishing portals.

The Companies House register of UK companies: https://find-and-update.company-information.service.gov.uk/

The UK Government’s list of strategic suppliers: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/strategic-suppliers

The UK Government’s open data on gender pay: https://gender-pay-gap.service.gov.uk/

Scope:

Contracts awarded between 2017 and 2020, latest gender pay gap reporting.

Description:

We took records for contracts awarded to strategic suppliers, grouping these suppliers according to different companies (e.g. MITIE Facilities, MITIE Security), having grouped companies together we calculated a median gender pay gap across these group of companies for each strategic supplier. Our aggregation is based on the companies that have been awarded contracts, not on all of the companies reporting for a group of companies, so the gender pay gap for Price Waterhouse Coopers LLP is recorded, but no pay gap is recorded for Price Waterhouse Coopers Services Ltd because there are no records of contracts being awarded to this entity. Our work therefore shows an average pay gap for the companies winning business with the public sector, we do not take into account the value of contracts different companies have won, or the number of employees in different companies.

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Departments and strategic suppliers compared.

By contrast, for the nineteen ministerial departments that report their gender pay status once an average is taken for their departmental bodies their sub-entities eighteen have pay bias towards men. Across all ministerial departments the average pay gap is 9.85%, with the Department for Transport having a pay gap of 20.30%. Nonetheless, it is clear the government has a sizeable pay gap, with a bias towards men in the all reporting departments except HM Treasury, which has a slight bias toward women (-3.86%).

In the associated violin chart, we’ve compared the gender pay gap of strategic suppliers and ministerial departments, highlighting the average pay gap in each group of organisations.

Our figures show that the ministerial department’s pay gap distribution is more concentrated and that the departments consistently perform better than strategic suppliers, with only one ministerial department having a pay gap that exceeds the average pay gap of the strategic suppliers.

During the period 2017-2020, these suppliers won an estimated 30% of Government contracts by value. We estimate from the published data that these suppliers won contracts to a value of approximately £159bn.

Pay gap comparison for major organisations.

Pay gap comparison between ministerial departments in government and the 38 strategic suppliers the gender pay gap of strategic suppliers and governments departments. The left axis is the pay gap, with zero indicating gender parity, measured as a percentage (%).


Pay gap comparison for major organisations.

Pay gap comparison between ministerial departments in government and the 38 strategic suppliers the gender pay gap of strategic suppliers and governments departments. The left axis is the pay gap, with zero indicating gender parity, measured as a percentage (%).


Name Pay gap
ACCENTURE Strategic Suppliers 9.80%
ATKINS Strategic Suppliers 18.00%
ATOS Strategic Suppliers 29.70%
AWS Strategic Suppliers 20.10%
BABCOCK Strategic Suppliers 16.83%
BALFOUR Strategic Suppliers 23.00%
BT Strategic Suppliers 8.35%
CAPGEMINI Strategic Suppliers 18.00%
CAPITA Strategic Suppliers 23.33%
CGI Strategic Suppliers 12.40%
COMPUTACENTER Strategic Suppliers 18.60%
DELOITTE Strategic Suppliers 14.70%
DXC Strategic Suppliers 26.00%
ENGIE Strategic Suppliers 27.38%
FUJITSU Strategic Suppliers 11.60%
G4S Strategic Suppliers 5.86%
IBM Strategic Suppliers 14.70%
INTERSERVE Strategic Suppliers 16.62%
ISS Strategic Suppliers 6.50%
JACOBS Strategic Suppliers 27.45%
KBR Strategic Suppliers 29.00%
KIER Strategic Suppliers 17.65%
LEIDOS Strategic Suppliers 18.50%
MICROSOFT Strategic Suppliers 10.20%
MITIE Strategic Suppliers 3.01%
MOTOROLA Strategic Suppliers 12.30%
MOTT Strategic Suppliers 19.45%
ORACLE Strategic Suppliers 17.20%
PRICEWATERHOUSECOOPERS Strategic Suppliers 31.70%
SERCO Strategic Suppliers 10.40%
SODEXO Strategic Suppliers 23.80%
SOPRA Strategic Suppliers 39.40%
VIRGIN Strategic Suppliers 7.40%
VODAFONE Strategic Suppliers 19.20%
AMEY Strategic Suppliers 17.58%
ERNST & YOUNG Strategic Suppliers 17.95%
KPMG Strategic Suppliers 20.87%
LAING O'ROURKE Strategic Suppliers 8.90%
ATTORNEY GENERAL'S OFFICE Government department 1.07%
CABINET OFFICE Government department 11.58%
DEPARTMENT FOR DIGITAL, CULTURE, MEDIA AND SPORT Government department 4.15%
DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION Government department 8.13%
DEPARTMENT FOR ENVIRONMENT, FOOD AND RURAL AFFAIRS Government department 9.73%
DEPARTMENT FOR EXITING THE EUROPEAN UNION Government department 12.33%
DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Government department 7.48%
DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE Government department 10.23%
DEPARTMENT FOR TRANSPORT Government department 20.30%
DEPARTMENT FOR WORK AND PENSIONS Government department 16.82%
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE Government department 11.88%
DEPT FOR BUSINESS, ENERGY AND INDUSTRIAL STRATEGY Government department 12.59%
FOREIGN AND COMMONWEALTH OFFICE Government department 11.07%
HM TREASURY Government department -3.86%
HOME OFFICE Government department 9.64%
MINISTRY OF DEFENCE Government department 9.57%
MINISTRY OF HOUSING COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT Government department 12.96%
MINISTRY OF JUSTICE Government department 9.20%
UK EXPORT FINANCE Government department 12.00%

Pay gap comparison for major organisations.

Pay gap comparison between ministerial departments in government and the 38 strategic suppliers the gender pay gap of strategic suppliers and governments departments. The left axis is the pay gap, with zero indicating gender parity, measured as a percentage (%).


Sources:

Spend Network database of contracts, all contracts are aggregated from official sources such as Contracts Finder and other publishing portals.

The Companies House register of UK companies: https://find-and-update.company-information.service.gov.uk/

The UK Government’s list of strategic suppliers: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/strategic-suppliers

The UK Government’s open data on gender pay: https://gender-pay-gap.service.gov.uk/

Scope:

Contracts awarded between 2017 and 2020, latest gender pay gap reporting.

Description:

We gathered the most recent reporting for each of the ministerial departments, where they meet the threshold for publishing, along with the reporting for all of the department’s sub-entities, including non-ministerial departments, advisory non-departmental public bodies, executive agencies, executive non-departmental public bodies and other agencies. We then took a median gender pay gap for the group of reporting organisations.

We took records for contracts awarded to strategic suppliers, grouping these suppliers according to different companies (e.g. MITIE Facilities, MITIE Security), grouped them together and calculated a median gender pay gap across these group of companies for each strategic supplier. Our aggregation is based on the companies that have been awarded contracts, not on all of the companies reporting for a group of companies, so the gender pay gap for Price Waterhouse Coopers LLP is recorded, but no pay gap is recorded for Price Waterhouse Coopers Services Ltd because there are no records of contracts being awarded to this entity. 

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Procurement category by gender pay gap.

£133bn in contracts went to sectors with a pay bias to men of over 22%. These sectors were almost evenly split at £67bn for Architectural and Engineering and £66bn for Construction and Architectural and Engineering.

Business Services saw contracts worth £94bn but has an average pay gap of 13%. The IT and Software categories saw with earnings of £34bn and £21bn respectively, but have pay biases of 19% and 21%.

In fact, of the top 10 categories, which make £340bn by themselves, only one category had a bias to men of less than 10%. This was Health and Social Care, a sector where women can make up to 80% of the workforce, despite this in the companies contracted by government to meet the public sector needs there is a 6% pay gap in favour of men.

Education and training, another sector with high levels of involvement by women, sees a pay gap of 10% in favour of men. Research and consultancy has a pay gap of 17%.

Gender pay gap by procurement category.

The average gender pay gap against the category of contracts let by public bodies between 2017 and 2020. Total contract value measured in £, gender pay gap measured in %.


Average gender pay gap

The average gender pay gap against the category of contracts let by public bodies between 2017 and 2020. Total contract value measured in £, gender pay gap measured in %. 


Type %age pay gap Amount Contracted (£bn)
Business Services 13 94
Architectural & engineering 22 67
Construction work 23 66
IT services 19 34
Transport equipment 12 28
Telecoms & media 17 24
Health & social 6 24
Software 21 21
Education & training 10 13
R&D 17 12

Gender pay gap by procurement category.

The average gender pay gap against the category of contracts let by public bodies between 2017 and 2020. Total contract value measured in £, gender pay gap measured in %. 


Sources:

Spend Network database of contracts, all contracts are aggregated from official sources such as Contracts Finder and other publishing portals.

The Companies House register of UK companies: https://find-and-update.company-information.service.gov.uk/

The UK Government’s open data on gender pay: https://gender-pay-gap.service.gov.uk/

EU Common Procurement Vocabulary: https://simap.ted.europa.eu/cpv

Scope:

Contracts awarded between 2017 and 2020, latest gender pay gap reporting.

Description:

To obtain a category for suppliers, we took the leading classification for each contract award notice and rounded these up to the highest level CPV code and took the best fit CPV code based on this data. Contracts were grouped and summed according to these high level CPV codes creating a total value for each category. We then used the Companies House identifiers that we had attributed to the suppliers that won these contracts and used this to gather and analyse each company’s gender pay gap. Finally, a median pay gap was determined for each category.

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Procurement categories, number of women in top jobs.

We also looked at the proportion of women in the top jobs among the highest value procurement categories. We did this by looking at the top quartile of employment, that is to say the 25% highest paying jobs in organisations. Within these 25% of the ‘top jobs’ we look at the split between men and women.

The largest sector, Business Services, saw women in 41% of the top roles. Although seemingly positive and close to equality, the 9% gap from equality needs to be seen in context of this being the largest sector with a 13% pay gap against women.

The next largest categories, Construction and Architecture and Engineering receive between them some £133bn in contracting value. This means that in sectors that both enjoy £66-67bn in contracting value each, women are in 13% (Construction) and 20% (Architecture and Engineering) of the top quartile of employment. In other words, for Construction, only just over one in ten of the top jobs goes to women. For Architecture and Engineering, this figure is one in five.

In fact, a bias against women is seen throughout much of the top 10 categories. With two exceptions, all sectors show a clear bias towards men for the top quartile of jobs. Of those 8 sectors that have a bias towards men, two sectors employed 30% or more women in top quartile jobs. In Business Services and Research and Consultancy, women were in 41% and 35% of the top roles respectively. The remaining 5 sectors have women in 25% or less of the top jobs. This means that for every 3 men in a top paying job there is 1 woman or less. Software and related services have 1 woman for every 3 men at the top. IT services and Telecoms have just over 1 woman for every 4 men at the top.

Women in top quartile jobs by procurement category.

A comparative analysis of the top procurement categories by £ spend alongside women’s share of top quartile in %.


Women in top quartile jobs by procurement category.

A comparative analysis of the top procurement categories by £ spend alongside women’s share of top quartile in %.


Type Women in Top Quartile Jobs (%) Amount Contracted (£bn)
Business Services 41 94
Architectural & engineering 20 67
Construction work 13 66
IT services 21 34
Transport equipment 17 28
Telecoms & media 21 24
Health & social 69 24
Software 25 21
Education & training 56 13
R&D 35 12

Women in top quartile jobs by procurement category.

A comparative analysis of the top procurement categories by £ spend alongside women’s share of top quartile in %.


Sources:

Spend Network database of contracts, all contracts are aggregated from official sources such as Contracts Finder and other publishing portals.

The Companies House register of UK companies: https://find-and-update.company-information.service.gov.uk/

The UK Government’s open data on gender pay: https://gender-pay-gap.service.gov.uk/

EU Common Procurement Vocabulary: https://simap.ted.europa.eu/cpv

Scope:

Contracts awarded between 2017 and 2020, latest gender pay gap reporting.

Description:

To obtain a category for suppliers, we took the leading classification for each contract award notice and rounded these up to the highest level CPV code and took the best fit CPV code based on this data. Contracts were grouped and summed according to these high level CPV codes creating a total value for each category. We then used the Companies House identifiers that we had attributed to the suppliers that won these contracts and used this to gather and analyse the percentage of women employed in the top quartile at each company. Finally, an average percentage of women employed in the top quartile of jobs was determined for each category.

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Procurement categories, the worst performers.

There is a broad overlap between the largest categories by contract value and the worst performing categories by gender pay gap. In the top ten categories for gender pay disparity six of the categories also feature in the top ten categories by expenditure; Construction works, Architectural and engineering, Software, IT services, Telecommunications & Media and Research and Consultancy all feature, representing £224bn of contracts let since 2017.

As we have show below, construction has a strong correlation between a high level of contract value and high levels of gender pay disparity. Along with Architectural engineering, Construction makes up the bulk of the contracting with the worst performing suppliers by category and should be the area of greatest focus if the government wants to reduce the gender pay gap in its supply base.

It is surprising that despite drives to improve women in technology, the IT Services, Software and Media and Communications categories are among the worst performing industries. The level of gender pay bias towards men is 17% for Telecoms & Media, 19% for IT Services and 21% for Software.

The worst performing category is finance and insurance, with a gender pay disparity of 24%, but a spend of only £3bn. However, directly contracted spend with the financial services sector is relatively rare as value is often exchanged as a percentage or as part of a varied and often complex set of services, from individual banking services to card payment processing and investments. In these cases there is rarely a formal contract with a predetermined value that can be published online. It is likely that the value of spending in this market is much greater than recorded.

The Real Estate Industry was the third highest bias, where men earned 22% more than women.

Procurement categories, the worst performers.

Procurement categories ordered by the worst performing gender pay gaps. Gender pay bias measured in % and total value of contracts between 2017 and 2020 measured in £. 


Procurement categories, the worst performers.

Procurement categories ordered by the worst performing gender pay gaps. Gender pay bias measured in % and total value of contracts between 2017 and 2020 measured in £. 


Category Pay gap (%) Amount Contracted (£bn)
Finance & insurance 27.00% £3
Construction 23.00% £66
Real estate 23.00% £0.2
Architecture & engineering 22.00% £67
Software 21.00% £21
Repair & maintenance 20.00% £7
IT services 19.00% £34
Hospitality 18.00% £1
Telecoms & media 17.00% £24
Research & consultancy 17.00% £12

Procurement categories, the worst performers.

Procurement categories ordered by the worst performing gender pay gaps. Gender pay bias measured in % and total value of contracts between 2017 and 2020 measured in £. 


Sources:

Spend Network database of contracts, all contracts are aggregated from official sources such as Contracts Finder and other publishing portals.

The Companies House register of UK companies: https://find-and-update.company-information.service.gov.uk/

The UK Government’s open data on gender pay: https://gender-pay-gap.service.gov.uk/

EU Common Procurement Vocabulary: https://simap.ted.europa.eu/cpv

Scope:

Contracts awarded between 2017 and 2020, latest gender pay gap reporting.

Description:

To obtain a category for suppliers, we took the leading classification for each contract award notice and rounded these up to the highest level CPV code and took the best fit CPV code based on this data. Contracts were grouped and summed according to these high level CPV codes creating a total value for each category. We then used the Companies House identifiers that we had attributed to the suppliers that won these contracts and used this to gather and analyse each company’s gender pay gap. A median pay gap was determined for each category and contract earnings for each category was ranked by the pay gap from largest category downwards.

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Does winning correlate to gender disparity?

By linking gender disparity data on who won contracts with the category and value of those contracts, we are able to show for the first time whether there is a positive or negative correlation between the value of the contracts a company wins and the extent of that companies gender pay gap, effectively establishing whether it pays to be prejudiced.

In the Business Services category there is a very strong negative correlation between a high gender pay gap and the value of contracts earned. Here we can see that as gender pay gaps increase, the value of the contracts that are being won decreases. In Construction Work the opposite is true, companies with the highest pay gaps are effectively being rewarded with higher value contracts.

This does not mean that the gender pay gap is influencing the outcomes of tenders, if a construction company chose to increase their gender pay gap it is unlikely that they would win more public sector contracts, instead the pay gap is associated with larger companies within the market and that these companies are winning larger contracts. However, our analysis does show that the issue of gender pay disparity is not impacting suppliers ability to win business, and that government is effectively providing a tacit approval of payment disparity with the contract awards that they make in this category.

Different categories are showing differing trends with the majority of categories generating rewards for disparity. Government has frequently taken a category led approach to purchasing and this analysis demonstrates that a category led approach to tackling pay disparity may be the most fruitful approach, should governments seek to change pay disparity in their supply base.

Correlating contract value and gender pay gap.

The correlation between the value of contracts let between 2017 and 2020 and the gender pay gap of company that won the contract. Pay gap measured in %, contract value measured in £.


Correlating contract value and gender pay gap.

The correlation between the value of contracts let between 2017 and 2020 and the gender pay gap of company that won the contract. Pay gap measured in %, contract value measured in £.


Category Amount contracted (£m) Pay gap of contracted supplier (%)
Business services 904182 11.3
Business services 10500000 26.9
Business services 17749 22.2
Business services 96000 2.3
Business services 93263421 14.9
Business services 122059 12.9
Business services 2410031 5.1
Business services 160564 16.1
Business services 129380338 2.7
Business services 95177 19.3
Business services 17779 8.1
Business services 6950000 17.2
Business services 99329 -0.5
Business services 55878 18.9
Business services 150000 27.3
Business services 6000 7
Business services 46324 11.1
Business services 4530724 -3.8
Business services 985181 4.5
Business services 38591 24.1
Business services 364400 10.6
Business services 33204 3.7
Business services 173322 37.5
Business services 27960 19.6
Business services 71313 19.2
Business services 8040290 32.3
Business services 21845697 14
Business services 5472874 28.9
Business services 20751169 20
Business services 336790 3.9
Business services 446566 -27
Business services 885897 7.4
Business services 47800 16.2
Business services 127602 29
Business services 69738 5.2
Business services 20106098 -6.9
Business services 27583 22.6
Business services 52753947 2.2
Business services 4000000 0.1
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